Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /nfs/c07/h03/mnt/178353/domains/unfitforpublication.org.au/html/plugins/system/gantry/gantry.php on line 406
1858, William Henry McDonald - Unfit For Publication
Text Size

The documentation of our history has to me always been a very important aspect. Although victories or celebrations are seldom part of this history, it’s important that it is put on record.

The cases recorded verbatim here, cover a very wide spectrum of emotions ranging from sadness, humour, violence, to compassion and even love.

For gay historians, this material gives an interesting insight into the lives of what we might call our ‘tribal ancestors’, for not only is the legal process on full view, but the evidence presented in each case gives us a window into these people’s lives, and how they managed their desires in a hostile society: where they might meet, how they might interact, and how they saw themselves and their ‘condition’.

Foreword by
Gary Wotherspoon

Peter de Waal

In the Central Police Court, George Harrison, alias “Carrie Swain,” an effeminate youth, was charged with vagrancy.

From the evidence of Senior-constable Sawtell and Constable Brown, it appeared that the prisoner was in the habit of frequenting Hyde Park and College-street, painted, powered, and bedecked so as to represent a female.

In this state he perambulated the streets and parks after dark. When arrested, it was found that he was wearing stays. The prisoner was sentenced to three months’ imprisonment with hard labour.

Gaol Photo - "Said to be a Pouftah"

1889, George Harrison

1889, George Harrison

A DETESTABLE CHARACTER.

The position of Darlinghurst Gaol is well known, and the prison forms a conspicuous object to persons travelling along the eastern tramline near where Botany-street branches off from Oxford-street. It covers an area of about 4¾ acres, and is situated on about the highest point of a ridge having between it and Oxford-street the Darlinghurst Courthouse, with the large plot of tree-planted land in front.

Darlinghurst gaol and courthouse, in foreground, complex, c. 1930.

"I looked over the rocks. I saw the two prisoners now before the court committing an unnatural crime. The prisoner Weston was in a stooping position with his head down and trousers down, and the prisoner Blackwell was behind him with his trousers down; and both in the act of copulation."

Blackwell and Weston were both sentenced in 1845 to twelve months hard labour in Darlinghurst Gaol.

The Sydney Morning Herald, Mon 8 Mar 1886

Mr George Newbolt, Assistant Superintendent on Cockatoo Island.

Darlinghurst gaol and courthouse, in foreground, complex, c. 1930.

He took me into his wife’s bedroom.
He brought into the room a bottle of Vaseline.

He said “I can easily do it with a little Vaseline.”

I said I didn’t believe him that kind of thing.
I said “What good will it do me?”

Vaseline Advert

1899, Simeon Alexander Moss

1899, Simeon Moss

Charge of Indecent Assault.

Simeon Alexander Moss was charged with having committed an indecent assault on Stanley Lake at Bowral on 20th July, 1899.

‘We are glad to be able this week to present to our readers an illustration of the new court house at Yass, now in course of erection, the ceremony of laying the foundation-stone of which, on this 20th of July last, by the Honourable the Colonial Secretary, in the presence of the Premier, Minister of Works, Attorney-General, &c, was duly recorded in our columns. The design has been prepared by the Colonial Architect, and is on a scale commensurate with the requirements of the district. The style chosen is classic of the Roman Doric order. Advantage has been taken of the site to give effect to the design by its approach, which is by a very broad and imposing flight of steps.’

The April sitting of the Yass Circuit Court opened before his Honor Mr Justice Faucett on Wednesday last. Mr Plunkett acted as Judge’s Associate and Clerk of Arraigns, Mr Mann, prosecuted on behalf of the Crown, while Mr Ould represented the Crown Solicitor. The other legal gentlemen present were Mr Colonna Close, barrister-at-law, and Mr EA Iceton, solicitor. Mr T Colls JP represented the Sheriff.

1885, Henry Smith was found guilty of having committed bestiality and sentenced to three years’ hard labour in Yass gaol.

Australian Town and Country Journal, Sat 31 Aug 1878

The Yass Courier, Fri 17 Apr 1885

IN writing this pamphlet my sole desire is to bring before the public the present injudicious system of treating juvenile delinquents, and those unfortunate children whose only crime is their poverty.

That a lad should be imprisoned simply because he is poor, is both brutal and unwise; but that he should he indiscriminately herded with young criminals is the height of folly and injustice.

That it is so, is undeniable.

On 25 January, 1867 the Colonial Secretary purchased the wooden sailing ship the “Vernon” and at a cost of more than eight and a half thousand pounds it was fitted up as an Industrial School. The ship, moored in Sydney Harbour between the Government Domain and Garden Island was declared a Public Industrial School on 6 May, 1867.

Industrial Schoolship - Vernon


Depositions for William Henry McDonald Mon 27 Sep 1858 Goulburn trial  1  

(O. 1.)
Recognizance to give Evidence.

New South Wales, Moama
TO WIT.                         }
Be it remembered, that on the tenth day of July, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight William Barber of Moama, Chief Constable personally came before us, two of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said Colony and acknowledged himself to owe our Sovereign Lady the Queen the sum of

Fifty Pounds

of good and lawful money of Great Britain, to be made and levied of his goods and chattels, lands and tenements, to the use of our said Lady the Queen, her Heirs and Successors, if he the said William Barber shall fail in the condition indorsed.
Taken and acknowledged the day and year first above mentioned, at Moama in the said Colony, before us.
[Signed] John Kelly, PM., Laurence Cockburn, JP.

    The condition of the within written Recognizance is such, that whereas one William Henry McDonald was this day charged before two Justices of the Peace within mentioned, for that he did, on or about the second day of June last, past commit the abominable crime of sodomy upon William Oliver if therefore he the said William Barber shall appear at the next Gaol Delivery to be holden at Goulburn in and for the Colony of New South Wales, on 27th day of September and there give such evidence as he knoweth upon an information to be then and there preferred against the said William Henry McDonald for the offence aforesaid, to the jurors who shall pass upon the trial of the said William Henry McDonald then the said Recognizance to be void, or else to stand in full force and virtue.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(M. 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)
Depositions of Witnesses.

New South Wales, Moama
TO WIT.                         }
The examination of William Barber at Moama in the Colony of New South Wales, Chief Constable and William Oliver of Moama in the said Colony, taken on oath this tenth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight, at Moama in the Colony aforesaid, before the undersigned, two of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said Colony in the presence and hearing of William Henry McDonald who is charged this day before us for that he the said William Henry McDonald on or about the second day of June at Moama, in the said Colony, did commit the abominable crime of sodomy upon the person of William Oliver.

1

William Henry McDonald (Sodomy)

    William Barber being duly sworn states as follows:– I am Chief Constable of this District. I know the prisoner – he was in the Lockup, here, fourteen days, under sentence from the Bench. A boy that I know to be named William Oliver was in the barracks while the prisoner was doing his time – the prisoner having represented him to me, as his son – he was fed in the place, by way of giving him protection. On or about three days after the prisoner was confined in the Lockup I had some suspicion that he was not the father of the boy: I asked the boy was the prisoner his father – the boy denied it – said his name was William Oliver, and that his father lived in Bendigo, and that his mother was dead. On the 29th of June I had occasion to go to Bendigo, to attend the Police Office on the thirtieth. I saw Mr Kirk the Superintendent of the Sandhurst District and told him about the boy being away from his father. On the next Monday morning, Mr Kirk brought me the father of the boy. I had some conversation, then, with the man

2

who said he was the father of the boy. I was then fully satisfied, from the man’s statement, and the boy’s (both having cooperated) that he was the father. On the second day of July I returned from Bendigo, after sundown – went into my own room, which is joining the barrack. The boy – William Oliver – came into the room of his own accord, and stated that the prisoner had put his cock up his backside. I told the boy I would see about it next morning. The prisoner’s time expired next morning. The third of July – I discharged him, and then apprehended him on the charge of sodomy. I then proceeded to Deniliquin with a prisoner named King, (for horse stealing) and reported the offence to the Police Magistrate, on his return from the Moulamein, on Wednesday evening, the seventh of July. I then returned to my quarters here, this yesterday morning.
[Signed] William Barber, Chief Constable.

    The prisoner declined to put any questions to this witness.
Taken and sworn to before us, this tenth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight, at Moama.
[Signed] John Kelly, PM., Laurence Cockburn, JP.

3

William Henry McDonald (sodomy)

    William Oliver being duly sworn states as follows: I know the nature of an oath. By telling the truth and doing everything I’m told right I would go to heaven. I’ve told a lie I would go to hell. I believe I’m ten years old. My father’s name is William Oliver – when I last saw him he lived at Epsom Diggings, – butchery. I think it is about three months since I saw my father. I have know the prisoner now before the Court for the last three months. I met him at Epsom one day, about three months ago – he was travelling to Bendigo. I was playing on the road, and the prisoner asked me would I go with him – he said he would give me some horses and some money. I went with him and he took me away to Bendigo. We were together for about two months on the diggings, until we were washed away out of the tent by the flood we then came back to Epsom, and stayed a little way in the bush and took two or three days coming here. We were three days here in a tent before the prisoner was put in the Lockup. We slept together in the same tent, in the same bed, and under the same

4

blanket. During every one of these three nights he put his cock up my bum – he put his cock into my bum – up my body – he remained about a minute with his cock in my bum, and he used to wet my bottom. I did object once to prisoner treating me so and prisoner said it was nothing. The prisoner never gave me any money but one shilling.
[Signed] William (his X mark) Oliver.
Taken and sworn to before us this tenth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight at Moama.
[Signed] John Kelly, PM., Laurence Cockburn, JP.

    The prisoner did receive the usual caution was asked if he had any statement to make – he said he had none.

5

    (M. 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)
    Statement of the Accused.

New South Wales, Moama
TO WIT.                         }
William Henry McDonald stands charged before the undersigned two of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the Colony aforesaid, this tenth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight for that he the said William Henry McDonald on or about the second day of July June at Moama in the said Colony, did commit the abominable crime of sodomy upon the person of one William Oliver and the said charge being read to the said William Henry McDonald and the witnesses for the prosecution, William Barber and William Oliver in his presence, the said William Henry McDonald is now addressed by us as follows:– “Having heard the evidence, do you wish to say anything in answer to the charge? You are not obliged to say anything unless you desire to do so; but whatever you say will be taken down in writing, and may be given in evidence against you upon your trial;” whereupon the said William Henry McDonald saith as follows: “I have nothing to say.”
[Signed] William Henry (his X mark) McDonald.

Signed and made before us at Moama this tenth day of July AD 1858.
[Signed] John Kelly, PM., Laurence Cockburn, JP.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

[On the depositions’ cover sheet is the following]

1858
Goulburn Circuit Court
Moama No. 5
Regina
v.
William Henry McDonald
Depositions

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

10th July 1858
1975
Depositions Regina    No. 5
v.
Wm Henry McDonald
Sodomy
Moama

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Sodomy on William Oliver
at Moama
on 2nd June 1858

Upon one Wm Oliver did feloniously make an assault & then & there feloniously & wickedly with said William Oliver did commit and perpetrate that detestable & abominable crime called Buggery

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Justice A Stephen’s notebook  2

25

[Goulburn, Monday 27th September 1858]
William Henry McDonald – Assault on Henry Oliver and commission with him of unnatural offence.
(The prisoner pleads Guilty. But on being told the punishment, he retracts.)

    William Barber. Chief Constable of Moama. On 4 June first knew prisoner. He was taken into custody by me and put in the lockup for improper conduct in the racecourse. The prisoner was accompanied by a boy who

26

is here today and who gave his name in the prisoner’s presence as William Henry McDonald … & the prisoner said that he was his son. Prisoner remained in my custody till the 3rd July & then I discharged him and took him into custody for sodomy. Some few days afterwards the boy told me that his real name was Oliver and that his father lived in Bendigo and his mother was dead. The prisoner was kept in the lock up and the boy was at the barracks. 3

 I cautioned the boy about his story – He is not at all like the prisoner – I am almost sure that the prisoner heard the boy tell me that his name was “William Oliver” 4 – I afterwards, ie on 19 June, went to Bendigo and saw there and spoke to a person of that name. On the 3rd July I told prisoner that I apprehended him on the charge of sod-

27

-omy with the boy. The prisoner said nothing. He cried.

    Cross-examined. Your time did not expire till the 3rd July. I know nothing of any constable threatening the boy to flog him unless he told the truth. There is a constable there named Smichdt 5 or Smith – a German. I was told the story first in the evening of the 2nd July. He came in to my private room & without any question from me told me the story. It was on that information that I apprehended the prisoner on the charge. I had only a few hours at that time returned from Bendigo. I had told the boy that I had seen his father at Bendigo.

    William Oliver. I am 10 years of age. My mother died at Bendigo 5 years ago. My father is Mr William Oliver. He was a

28

baker in Sydney. I was born there. First saw prisoner at Epsom near Bendigo. Was living with Mrs Philips. My father put me there.  6  Prisoner asked me to go with him. He said that if I would go he would give me cattle and horses and money. He said that he kept a ph  7  in Sydney. I went with him to Bendigo for 3 months. Then we went to Epsom but he lived in a tent. I ran away from him twice & he ran after me. The tent was on a hill among lots of trees. Only staid there one day. We went to an old hut and remained a day. Went then to Maiden’s Punt.  8  We were 4 days going there. Stopped 3 days there in a tent. Prisoner carried it. We slept in same bed. On this side of the river something happened. Prisoner put his cock up my

29

bum. I felt it. He did so for about a minute. Did it on 3 (points ?). Did not do it in the lock up. I told Mr Barber.  9

    By me. The prisoner got put in watch house on the 4th day for being drunk. Prisoner told me on the road to the Punt to call myself by his name. I was lying on my belly. I had been asleep. He was on top of me. Told him that it was wrong. He said that every body in Sydney did it. He put his private parts into my body. I am sure of it. I told nobody before I told Mr Barber.  10

    By prisoner. I pitched the tent where I did because the boy said he was afraid to see his father. “It is not so. It is true that my father had beat me. So had Mrs Phillips. I did not say come on or that I would not go back – Mr Phillips was away at the diggings. My father put me to live with her. 11  

30

I brought water for her. I went to a school there. I ran away the evening before I was picked up by prisoner and slept at Mrs Dunn’s with one of her children. It is a mile from Mrs Phillips’s. I never told prisoner that I was beaten for stealing sugar. 12  – I was a week at school. I fed on bread … tea and sugar … and meat while with prisoner. The prisoner’s tent was ¼ mile from the town at Epsom. I could not run very fast: and he brought me back. He did not beat me.

Guilty. I passed the Sentence of Death.  13  
(Rose at 6.)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Wed 29 Sep 1858  14 

    GOULBURN CIRCUIT COURT.
    MONDAY 27th SEPTEMBER.
    (Before his Honor the Chief Justice.)   

The Court was opened at 10 o’clock. The members of the bar present were Mr Blake, and Mr Butler, Crown Prosecutor; Attorneys, J[ohn] Moore Dillon, Criminal Crown Solicitor, CH Walsh, GC Allman, and R Warings, Esqrs.
…    

UNNATURAL OFFENCE.

    William Henry McDonald was next placed at the bar, charged with an unnatural crime, to which he first pleaded guilty. On being questioned by his Honor if he understood the nature of the plea, and the sentence it would be his duty to pass upon him, if he persisted in that plea, he withdrew the plea of guilty, and a plea of not guilty was recorded.

    The Crown Prosecutor, in addressing the jury, said they were not to be influenced by the prisoner having first pleaded guilty, which plea, at the merciful suggestion of his Honor, had been withdrawn; but they must look at and judge of his guilt or innocence according to the evidence brought before them.

    The chief constable [William Barber] of Maoma [sic] deposed to the apprehension of the prisoner, in consequence of a a [sic] conversation he had had with a boy named William Oliver, about 9 or 10 years of age.

    The evidence of the boy Oliver went clearly to establish the prisoner’s guilt, but the details are necessarily unfit for publication.

    The jury retired at 25 minutes past 5 o’clock, and at a quarter to 6 returned into court, finding the prisoner guilty, but recommending him to mercy.

    His Honor in passing sentence, said he had now a painful duty to perform, Having done so, it would be for the Governor and the executive to consider the recommendation of the jury, which would be laid before them with his own remarks on the case.

    Sentence of death was then passed in the usual form, His Honor holding out no hope of mercy.

    The court adjourned at 6 o’clock until half-past nine on Tuesday morning.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Sydney Morning Herald, Sat 2 Oct 1858  15 

GOULBURN CIRCUIT COURT.
————
    (Abridged from the Chronicle of Wednesday.)

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 27.—Before his Honor the Chief Justice.—The Court of Assize opened at 10o’clock on Monday morning last, before his Honor the Chief Justice. Mr Edward Butler attended as Crown Prosecutor, assisted by Mr J Moore Dillon, Criminal Crown Solicitor. Mr J O’Neil Brenan, High Sheriff of New South Wales, was in attendance on the Chief Justice. Besides the barrister prosecuting on behalf of the Crown, there was only one member of the bar present, Mr Blake. There was a full attendance of jurors and others.

    UNNATURAL OFFENCE.—William Henry McDonald, a Bombay Eurasian, aged 32, charged with the committal of an unnatural offence, of a most revolting character, on the 2nd June last, at Moama, was found guilty, and sentenced to death.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Thu 7 Oct 1858  16 

GOULBURN CIRCUIT COURT.
————
    (Abridged from the Goulburn Papers.)

    This court opened on Monday, 27th September, before his Honor the Chief Justice, Mr Butler prosecuting for the Crown.

    William Henry McDonald, a Bombay Eurasian, was convicted of an unnatural offence, and sentenced to death.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Wed 13 Oct 1858  17 

LOCAL INTELLIGENCE.
———•———

...
    PETITION.—A petition is in the course of signature, praying the Executive to spare the life of the criminal William McDonald, who was sentenced to death at the late assizes. The principal ground relied on by the petitioners is the gross state of ignorance in which the prisoner has grown up. The document has been very respectably signed.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

NSW Executive Council Minute, 19 Oct 1858  18  

Minute No. 40

    Executive Council Chambers
Sydney Monday 19th October 1858 

Present
    His Excellency the Governor General [Sir William Thomas Denison]
    The Honorable the Vice President of the Council [Charles Cowper]
    The Honorable the Colonial Treasurer [Robert Campbell]
    The Honorable the Solicitor General [Alfred James Peter Lutwyche]
    The Honorable the Secretary for Lands and Public Works [Terence Aubrey Murray]

    The Council having met pursuant to the summons of His Excellency the Governor General the Minutes of proceedings on the 11th instant are read and confirmed–

F – His Excellency the Governor General lays before the Council a report from His Honor the Chief Justice of the Capital Conviction at the Goulburn Assizes of W McDonald for the crime of Sodomy.

2.    This report is accompanied by a Petition signed by a number of persons, residents in the Town and District of Goulburn including the Clergy of the several denominations recommending McDonald to mercy on the ground that there is good reason to believe that he is a pagan and ignorant of the heinousness of the crime in the site of our law and further on the ground of the bad moral effect which is likely to result from the publicity attending the execution of a man for such an offence.

3.    The Chief Justice being in attendance is then introduced and the report having been read in his presence His Honor gives such personal explanation in the case as the Council deem necessary.

4.    Having deliberated at some length, the Council before arriving at any decision in this matter desire that the Judge’s Report and accompanying Petition be referred to the Crown Law Officers in order that inquiry may be made whether it is the practice in England to punish persons Capitally for the offence of which McDonald has been convicted.

    During the consideration of this matter the Honorable the Attorney General [James Martin] enters the Council and takes part in the deliberations.

The Council then adjourned sine die
[Signed] Edward C Merewether
Clerk of the Council

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

NSW Executive Council Minute, 25 Oct 185  19 

Minute No. 41

Executive Council Chambers
Sydney Monday 25th October 1858

Present
    His Excellency the Governor General [Sir William Thomas Denison]
    The Honorable the Vice President of the Council [Charles Cowper]
    The Honorable the Colonial Treasurer [Robert Campbell]
    The Honorable the Solicitor General [Alfred James Peter Lutwyche]
    The Honorable the Secretary for Lands and Public Works [Terence Aubrey Murray]

    The Council having met pursuant to summons the minutes of proceedings on the 19th instant are read and confirmed–

B – The Council having upon the invitation of His Excellency the Governor General resumed the consideration of the case of the capital conviction of WH McDonald which was referred at their last meeting for the report of the Crown Law Officers – The Honorable the Attorney General in his place informs them that after a careful examination of all the sources of information open to him, he has arrived at the conclusion that it is not the practice in England to punish capitally such as that of which Macdonald [sic] has been convicted and that it would therefore perhaps be prudent to leave to the side of mercy in his case.

2.    Under this report the Council are of opinion that they would scarcely be justified in allowing the extreme sentence of the law to be carried into effect and they accordingly advise that the sentence of death passed upon WH MacDonald [sic] be commuted to the following severe punishment viz imprisonment with hard labor for life in such gaol or penal establishment of the Colony as His Excellency the Governor General may from time to time direct the first 3 years of such imprisonment to be passed in irons.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Sat 30 Oct 1858 {tip The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Sat 30 Oct 1858, p. 2. } 20 {/tip}

LOCAL INTELLIGENCE.
———•———


    THE CONDEMNED CRIMINAL.– Up to yesterday no intimation had been received by the authorities as to whether the executive had come to any decision in the case of William McDonald, who now lies under sentence of death.

    THE GAOL.– We perceive that at length tenders have been called for for [sic] additions to the quarters provided for the gaoler at Goulburn Gaol. The accommodation hitherto has been quite inadequate; and the apartments which the gaoler was compelled to occupy were in fact intended for another purpose; so that it may be said that hitherto there have been no quarters for him at all.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Wed 10 Nov 1858 21

LOCAL INTELLIGENCE.
———•———


    THE CONDEMNED CRIMINAL.—The sentence of death passed at the last Assizes, on Wm McDonald has been commuted to imprisonment for life, the three first years to hard labor on the roads. The criminal will shortly be removed to Parramatta.

 


1  SRNSW: NRS880, [9/6418], Supreme Court, Papers and depositions, Goulburn, 1858, No. 2. Emphasis added.

2  SRNSW: NRS7701, [2/7098B], Judiciary, A Stephen, CJ, Notebooks Circuit Courts, 1841-75, p.25-30. Emphasis added.

3  Mn: (Prisoner is like a Malay. Told the gaoler that he was born in Bombay)

4  Mn: I believe that the prisoner heard me – He put up his fist to the boy.

5  Mn: Means, Schmidt.

6  Mn: My father was living at Epsom.

7  (Public house ?)

8  Mn: (60 miles distant.)

9  Mn: (Maiden’s Punt is Moama)

10 Mn: “He had done it before in Bendigo.”

11 Mn: My father beat me at Bendigo.

12 Mn: (Prisoner presses the boy as to this.)

13 Mn: “Recommended to Mercy” – (Unless on accusation of the prisoner’s country, I don’t know why.)

14 The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Wed 29 Sep 1858, p. 2. Emphasis added.

15 The Sydney Morning Herald, Sat 2 Oct 1858, p. 6.

16 The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Thu 7 Oct 1858, p. 3.

17 The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Wed 13 Oct 1858, p. 2.

18 SRNSW: NRS4232, [4/1537], Executive Council, Minute books, Minute 40, 19 Oct 1858, pp. 196, 200-1, 208, R2443.

19 SRNSW: NRS4232, [4/1537], Executive Council, Minute books, Minute 41, 25 Oct 1858, pp. 209-11, R2443.

20 The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Sat 30 Oct 1858, p. 2.

21 The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser, Wed 10 Nov 1858, p. 2.