The Gundagai Independent and Pastoral, Agricultural & Mining Advocate, Sat 11 Mar 1899 1
AT the Tumut Police Court on Wednesday, a serious charge was preferred against an Indian hawker, named Mann Singh, who was charged with committing an unnatural offence upon a boy.
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The Wagga Wagga Advertiser, Tue 14 Mar 1899 2
NEWS IN BRIEF.
AT Tumut last Thursday Mann Singh, an Indian hawker, was committed for trial on a charge of a serious kind.
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The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Tue 14 Mar 1899 3
LATEST LOCAL AND GENERAL
A DREADFUL OFFENCE.—On Thursday last, at the Tumut Police Court, before Messrs Newman and Sanderson, JsP, Mann Singh, an Indian, was charged with an attempt to commit an unnatural offence on a lad named Fred Korn, aged 14 years. Mr Emanuel appeared for the defence, and Senior-Sergeant Rootes prosecuted. Evidence taken was of a most revolting nature, and quite unfit for publication, the case having been conducted with closed doors. Accused was committed for trial, bail allowed, himself in £50, and tow sureties of £25 each.
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The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Fri 17 Mar 1899 4
SPARKS FROM THE ANVIL.
UNPUBLISHABLE! This is the label attached by the press to the evidence in the case of the Indian, Mann Singh, who was committed for trial by the Tumut Bench last week for an alleged unnatural offence upon a boy, aged 14. And this is how the Asiatic curse constantly protrudes itself upon Australians. I am glad to see that in commenting upon the case the Tumut Times has emerged from its usual neutral, timid policy, and has spoken against the indiscriminate issue of hawkers’ licenses to theses itinerant pedlars, who have made a crusade upon the Australian bush to terrorise the defenceless wives of our settlers. Even though the action is confined to a few respectable papers who will solidly express their abhorrence to the inroads of the Asiatics upon our customs, I hope that the key-note struck by the Gundagai Times some time ago, and which was taken up by the Albury Border Post and several city and country organs, will be sounded throughout the land, until this dreaded (?) (?) is removed from the lives of the poor women in the bush, the solitude of whose existence is sufficient penance, without being offensively domineered over, threatened, and grinned at by a herd of white-teethed brutes.
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The country can do without them just as well as respectable newspapers can. Only the other day a certain Gundagai gentleman, who owns business places in the main street, refused to rent his shops to a party of Indian storekeepers, under any consideration, r any price. He is to be admired for his conduct, and I only hope the example will be copied by every owner of business premises in Sheridan-street. The gentleman who stood in his own light—from a mercenary standpoint—for the sake of principle, is more worthy of admiration than though he had donated £100 to the Hospital. These Indians seek in vending their penny jim-cracks to undercut the legitimate storekeeper who aims only for a fair margin of profit. Their domestic habits are most revolting. They herd together like swine, and germinate all sorts of foul diseases. In their bartering habits its impossible to tell when you get true value. No decent person could tolerate them as neighbours, and they contribute not a cent to the maintenance of the institutions of the district from which they draw their living. Contrast them to the Chinaman, who is if anything more liberal hearted than the European. Their sole watchword is—Backsheesh! And they follow Lord Chesterfield’s advice in the getting of it. Let us give a cheer for bold Mr Smithers, SM, who once refused to renew the licenses of 200 Indian hawkers. Mr Smithers stated as his reason that they are becoming a terror in the land, but the puny law of ours compelled him to retract, and, in issuing the licenses on protest, do in a court of justice an action diametrically opposed to his conscience.
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Regarding the habitually peevish conduct of judges in the law courts, I was struck by the altered manners of Judge Rogers, as exhibited at the Quarter Sessions. Upon his first appearance at Gundagai he impressed everybody as the quintessence of urbanity and delicacy; upon his last showing he was as icy and stony as Cleopatra’s Needle in the Jersey Cave. It is said a judge on the Bench has more power than the Queen on the Throne. If so, more’s the pity. Most of the judges are little better than callous man, whose natures have become embittered by the unpleasant duties they have chosen to pursue. I have often pitied nervous witnesses in the box. They first become terrorist by the judge, who badgers them with guerulous [sic] interrogations, and simply forces a train of evidence out of timid witnesses, perhaps only partially true, but said to satisfy the judge. Take the witness Gabriel Spiech at the last Quarter Sessions. Mr Spiech is a man of nervous temperament, but I pitied the man for the manner in which the peevish judge put him on the rack, and called him stupid and what not. I can tell Judge Rogers he exceeded his rights—and that isn’t justice. If the conduct is ever repeated in this court I shall speak plainly about it. If Gabriel Spiech told Judge Rogers he was peevish he would be committed for contempt of court. Judge Rogers deems himself privileged to say what he chooses to Gabriel Spiech. If under such circumstances a witness committed perjury, the judge, not the witness, would be blameable, and I would make a witness against the Crown. Judges cannot come up and ride rough-shod over timid country people, who sometimes prevaricate in the court simply because they stand in dread of the law and are awe-struck by the legal bigwigs and bullies. The press must fight for the people, even though it hurts the feelings of the big men.
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The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Tue 1 Aug 1899 5
Monday, July 31st.
Before His Honor Judge Rogers.
Mr Armstrong, barrister-at-law, prosecuted for the Crown.
Mr MS Machen acted as Deputy Sheriff.
Mann Singh was charged with that he did on 7th March, at Gilmore Creek, indecently assault Frederick Korn, a boy aged about 14 years.
Mr Griffin appeared for accused, who pleaded not guilty.
The following jury was empannelled [sic]:– JHW Hood, WS Bootes, WG Budd, F Goodwin, T Jones, M Bruce, W Weeden, W Martin, WT Jenkins, Jas Packett, JEC Turner, Jas Roberts.
His Honor said it was a very disgusting case, and that all boys should leave the court, and that he left it to the sense of decency to others in court whether they remained.
Mr Armstrong, the Crown Prosecutor, stated the case in its horrible details to the jury.
Frederick Korn deposed: I live at Gilmore, five miles from Tumut, with my father. I was 14 on the 16th April last. I have seen the accused at my father’s place. He was there twice. Father and I were having dinner at 12 o’clock when the Indian came on to the kitchen verandah with a bundle of drapery. He is a hawker. He asked father did he wish to buy any goods. Father bought a shirt for me, and paid 2s 3d for it. I asked the Indian to give me three studs, and said I would give him some grapes for them, to which he consented. He asked Father could he boil his billy in the kitchen. Father then went to the vineyard, telling me to stay at the house during his absence. I went to the kitchen, and accused went round the house and into the kitchen. He got some water, and then put the billy on the fire. He said down on a form, and I sat alongside of him. We were talking for about five minutes, when accused caught hold of me by the shoulder, and held me, and dragged me into a bedroom in the house by my neck and the back of my trousers. I couldn’t scream out, because accused had a white handkerchief drawn tightly across my mouth, and held at the neck. He dragged me by force – my face downwards, and my legs dragging. (Witness then described the horrible nature of the offence, accused, in the act of forcibly pulling his trousers off, pulling off the buttons, and ripping the back of the trousers.)
Upon resumption after lunch,
Witness Korn stated: Martin McCormack and his brother were at our place in the afternoon of the offence, after the occurrence, when my father recited the facts to them. Tommy Hope also came that afternoon. My father sent for the police, and Sergeant Rootes and Constable Glen came. The Indian was then present. I gave the Sergeant an account of what happened.
To Mr Griffin: The Indian was at our house only once before this occurrence – about November. He slept there that night. Dick Beck and Angus Piper slept there the same night. The Indian slept in a skillion room off the kitchen. I am sure of it, because he asked my father’s permission to do so. At the Tumut police court I did not say he slept in the room in which the assault took place. I told the sergeant I wasn’t sure in which room the Indian slept. I swore at Tumut the Indian slept in the kitchen. Father and I were having dinner as 12 o’clock, and the Indian came between 12 and 12.30, just when we were finishing dinner. I did not say at the Tumut court he caught me by the arms and legs and dragged me into the room. I did not say either that he had hold of one of my arms and that he had the other between my legs. The Indian did not break the buttons off my trousers, and I swore this morning that he did because I fancied he had done so. I do not know how long my father was down the vineyard. I did not hear my father come back until he was at the bedroom door. I did not swear at Tumut that my father did not threaten to flog me for being in the room with the Indian. The handkerchief was not tied. The Indian has one deformed hand, but he uses it. My father shoved the Indian out of the door. The gun, I believe, was in the vineyard when my father went down. I don’t remember anything being said about a suit of clothes when the accused was at our place on the former occasion. When my father left us the Indian and I were on the kitchen verandah. When the sergeant was looking for me I was against the press-house. My father went to flog me with a whip, and that caused me to go out in the yard.
Dr HW Mason, Government Medical Officer at Tumut, deposed: On the afternoon of the 7th March I examined the boy externally and found no injuries on the lower part of his body. There was a very slight mark, which seemed like a bruise, on the arm. This could have been produced by someone tightly holding the boy. I could not give the opinion that the boy had been assaulted in the manner alleged from what I saw by the examination.
The boy Frederick Korn was re-called, and cross-examined by Mr Griffin as to the details of the offence.
Mr Griffin put in the depositions of Frederick Korn, taken at the police court proceedings at Tumut, which were read to the jury.
Witness Korn, to his Honor: I have two sisters, one married at Wagga and the other at her grandfather’s place. I have two brothers alive; they live at grandfather’s, at Blowering. I don’t know why my brothers and sisters don’t live at home. I don’t think the trousers were torn before the day in question.
John Korn, father of last witness, deposed: I am a farmer and vigneron, living at Gilmore. The boy was 14 years old on 16th April. I saw the accused twice at my place – the last time on 7th March. He had goods with him, and he wanted me to buy some. We had just finished our dinner when accused arrived about 12 o’clock. I bought a cotton shirt for myself, and gave 3s 3d for it. I gave accused permission to boil a billy of tea. I went to the vineyard for about 25 minutes, and took my gun with me. When I came back I looked in the kitchen, but found nobody there. Then I went round the house, and came in the front door. I couldn’t see anybody, so I went into the passage, which runs right through the house. There are four rooms in the house, two on either side of the passage. I went to the back bedroom door. It was partly open, and I then pushed it right open. When I got to the room accused went into the corner. I caught hold of him, and turned him right round. When I saw what had happened, I swore at him, and said “If I had a gun I would shoot you.” I then shoved him outside the front door. I said I would give him in charge. He said he would give me £1 to quash it, and promised not to repeat his offence. I went inside the house again, and put his two swags, which lay in the front verandah, in the house. I then locked the door and jumped out of the back window. I went down the vineyard again and got my gun. Accused was behind the house all the time, and he followed me down to the vineyard when I went to get my gun. I then went outside the vineyard, whilst accused remained inside the vineyard. I told him not to come near me, or I would shoot him. Accused put his hand over my head and said, “Forgive, Jesus Christ, I’ll not do it again.” That occurred in the vineyard. He said he would give me £2/10/- to quash it, and by and bye promised to give more. I said I wouldn’t quash it if he gave me £1000. I went to the house, accused following me. The brothers McCormack were then going along, and I called them over to the house. I told them what had happened, in accused’s presence. Martin McCormack asked me to send for the police, and volunteered to go for them himself. The police arrived about an hour after. I went to get the horsewhip to “hammer” the boy, and he ran away down the paddock. The boy made no statement until the police arrived. I sang out for the boy when the police came, and the boy then came up to me. I said to the boy, “Why didn’t you sing out when the Indian was there?” the boy replied that he couldn’t, as his face was jammed into the pillow. My wife is alive – but many years dead to me. She left me about 20 years ago. I have no son or daughter with me, except the boy Frederick. He is not my son by my wife. Sergeant Rootes was present when the boy told what happened.
To Mr Griffin: I have had a good many housekeepers since my wife died.
To His Honor: The boy goes away for a couple of days to see his sisters, and then I give him a beating. There are three children by my wife.
To Mr Griffin: I don’t know my wife’s mother. I have only been in court once – “for anything like this.” I was once fined for selling wine without a licence. I was not before the court “for any badness”. I was brought before the court for wife desertion. I didn’t desert her. She left me. I had to pay her maintenance. Tommy Holt did not sleep in the bed on the night in question – he was away for a week. I think Tommy Holt came that morning. I bought the shirt for the boy, but I found it fitted me. I did not buy a suit of clothes for 15s 3d in November off accused, and I did not owe him any money. I did not owe accused 29s 6d, nor a shilling. The boy asked for the studs, and I said accused could have a couple of bunches of grapes. When I came back from the vineyard I found both the back and front doors open. My house is on the main road, and I have frequent callers in the grape season. The boy wasn’t in the room when I put the Indian out. It is not true that I offered to let him off if he let me off my account. Another Indian I had accused of theft two years ago. I made no remark about a saddle owned by accused. He came on horseback, leading a packhorse. I might have said to him, “I believe you are making plenty of money,” and he said he was doing well. If I want goods I buy them from the store, not off the Indians. A couple of years ago I accused some Indians of breaking into my wine cellar and wasting the wine, when I took £5 to square it. The cellar was flooded with wine.
To the Crown Prosecutor: I threatened to whip the boy because he didn’t sing out.
Senior-Sergeant [Sivyer John] Rootes deposed: On Tuesday, 7th March, after seeing Martin McCormack, I went to the residence of John Korn. I saw there accused, John Korn and John McCormack in front of Korn’s house. Constable Glen was with me. (Korn then related to the sergeant the occurrences leading up to the alleged offence; and this conversation was repeated in the sergeant’s evidence.) Accused then said to me: “Boss, him tell lie; see little boy, see what him say.” I said, “I want to see the boy, where is he?” I found the boy at the back of the house, with his father and others. I called the boy into the kitchen, and he made a statement to me. I went outside with the boy, and asked him, in the presence of accused, to state what had occurred. (The boy’s conversation, substantially the same as his evidence in chief, was then given.) I then arrested accused, and charged him with indecently assaulting the boy. Accused said, “You make me understand,” and then I explained the charge to him. I had the boy examined by Dr Mason, and took possession of the trousers.
To Mr Griffin: Korn did not question the boy in my presence about the case. Korn told me Tommy Holt had slept in the bed the night before. He said the Indian had slept on a previous occasion – in a room off the kitchen. It was accused who asked me to examine the boy.
The jury was locked up for the night.
The hearing of this case will be resumed at 10 o’clock this morning.
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The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Fri 4 Aug 1899 6
Tuesday, August 1.
Before His Honor Judge Rogers.
Mann Singh was charged with that he did, on 7th March, 1899, at Gilmore Creek, indecently assault one Frederick Korn, a boy 14 years of age.
Mr Griffin defended the accused.
Mr Armstrong, barrister-at-law, prosecuted for the Crown..
Mr MS Machen acted as Deputy Sheriff.
The evidence for the prosecution closed on Monday, and was published in our last issue.
John Korn, re-called, was further examined by Mr Griffin.
The accused, Mann Singh, was sworn by holding a glass of water on the palm of his hand, and taking the oath by saying he “would be without water if he told a lie.” He then deposed: I am a hawker. I left Tumut post-office at 12.30 o’clock on Tuesday, March 7. After going to the blacksmith’s shop I went out as far as Korn’s, at the Gilmore. I have called at Korn’s three or four times before, sometimes when nobody was at home. The first time I called I was not a hawker. About November last, when I was a hawker, I stayed at Korn’s a night. On that occasion I slept in a skillion room alongside the kitchen. I have never been inside Korn’s house. When I first called I sold Korn shirts, and he sold me what I think was fat for butter. I again called on 16th December, when I sold him a suit of clothes for his boy for 15s 6d. He did not pay me then, but promised to pay in a couple of months. About 16th or 17th January, as I was passing from Adelong to Tumut, I sold him one pair of trousers and two shirts. He said he would pay for all the things together. I did not call again until 7th March. Arjun Singh was with me when I called on one occasion. When I last called Korn owed me 29s 6d. He further bought a shirt for the boy, for 3s 3d. Korn promised to settle his account directly, I gave the boy three white bone studs for some grapes. The boy did not give me the grapes. I asked Korn’s permission to boil the billy-can, and he consented. Tommy Holt then left the house with his gun. I then took my tucker-bag round the house and went into the kitchen, and Korn and his son went inside the house. They were talking together, but I don’t know what they said. After a few minutes both came on to the kitchen verandah, and as I was opening the tucker-bag Korn said to me that he was going to the vineyard, and would soon come back and pay me before I went. I asked the boy for some matches to make up the fire, which he gave me, and the boy told me I could get some water out of the bucket. The boy sat on the stool, and said, “I will give you the grapes now, if you come with me.” I refused, saying I did not dare to go inside the house. He then offered to bring them to the kitchen. After a couple of minutes I heard his father say to him, “What are you doing here?” the boy said “Nothing,” and ran out. I left the tea boiling and went inside the kitchen door. I there saw Korn with a whip in his hand, coming along the back door of the hall. He said “What are you doing here?” I said, “What do you mean? Didn’t you give me permission to boil my billy can here?” He said “No.” I told him he had given me permission, but he said he had told me to boil it outside the kitchen. I said, “What I steal off you? You can search me.” He said, “Never mind; the police search you see what you steal off me. You thief right enough; I let you off if you let me off the credit and give me some more money.” I said, “You can’t frighten me; if you poor man I let you off; I won’t give you farthing if you frighten me like that; you can give me in charge, and see what you can get then.” Korn said, “I rob four Indians before for selling wine; you too hard; I sell you for life.” I said to him, “You not Government or God,” and he replied, “I show you.” He then turned round in the kitchen, got his gun, and went to where his swag was on the verandah. He got to the verandah before me. After that I went to my horse, but couldn’t see any bundles. I saw Korn with his gun. I asked for my bundles, and Korn said he didn’t know where they were. I then said I would go for the police, but Korn said he would not let me go. I said, “I am not frightened, because nobody like to die for nothing. I will wait and see what you charge me with.” Korn is a dangerous man, and said, “If you shift one foot I will shoot you clear.” After a few minutes two men on horseback came along going towards Gilmore Creek. They said to Korn, seeing his pointing the gun, “What happened here?” Korn said to them, crying like a child, “That man ruin my boy.” One of the men got off his horse, and the other one rode towards Tumut. I don’t know the men’s names. I said then, “Won’t you listen to me what happened here?” They said, “We don’t care about Indians.” One of the men made Korn put away the gun. After a while Sergeant Rootes, Constable Glen and the other man came to Korn’s house. In answer to the sergeant, Korn said, “This man try to ruin my child.” The sergeant said, “Where were you at the time?” and Korn said, “Down in the vineyard. I was away from them about four or five minutes.” I said, “Korn is telling stories; ask the boy.” After a while the boy was found, and the sergeant asked what I had done to him. The boy said, “He only catch hold of me, nothing else.” The sergeant then took me to the room in the house where it is stated the offence took place. The sergeant opened the door, and saw the bed disarranged. Korn said Tommy Holt had slept in the bed. The sergeant said to me something in English I could not understand. I said to the sergeant, “Make me understand what meaning those words.” He gave me further answers, which I did not understand, and I said, “English not my mother tongue, alright.” the sergeant caused me to place my swag on the horse, and come to the Tumut lock-up. After some time Dr Mason came with Sergeant Rootes. The doctor then examined me. I was in front of the house when the men rode along the road. I never go into a house unless I am invited. I was not in the room with the boy, and did not touch him. I have a crippled hand, and cannot grip anything with it. Korn asked me about my saddle and whether I had any money, when I said, “Yes, I have enough to live on comfortably; I have a few pounds just now, over £3.”
To the Crown Prosecutor: Korn wanted to rob me, and that’s why he wanted to know how much money I had. All three were together on the kitchen verandah when we were speaking. I am sure Korn was not away more than four or five minutes. Korn and his son were not away together at any time before the police arrived. Korn had the gun and watched me until the police came. Korn was with me the whole time, although the son was away. I believe the charge must have been worked up between them when I was boiling my billy, as that was the only opportunity they had. They were friendly with me when I came to the house. What the sergeant swore yesterday that the boy said in my presence about the charge was not said in my presence. The boy said to the sergeant that I had done nothing to him beyond catching him by the shoulder.
Arjun Singh, sworn in the same way as Mann Singh, deposed through an interpreter: I have been to Korn’s place with Mann Singh before Christmas. I heard Korn and accused speaking. Korn bought a suit of clothes, but got two months’ tick for the articles. The price was 15s 6d.
To the Crown Prosecutor: Korn was the only person there. They slept that night in a tent alongside the road. Korn walked up to the tent and bought the suit of clothes. He had camped there on the road to Tumbarumba. He had before said things to Korn, but not this time. Korn paid him cash. He did not give “tick”.
Richard Peck deposed: I live at Gilmore, and rent Korn’s farm.
To the Crown Prosecutor: The farm is about 300 acres in extent. It is improved by a brick house of four rooms, and corn-shed. My brother and I pay about £100 rent. There are 80 acres of wheat land and 60 acres of corn land. The remainder is grazing land. Korn does not farm land himself. He only has the vineyard. Korn is a careful man, and I do not think he would go into debt to the hawker. I cannot say whether there is a big mortgage on the land or not.
William Lewin, a farmer, of Adelong Crossing, deposed: I have lived at Adelong Crossing for about 40 years. I have known Mann Singh for about two years. He has stayed at my place occasionally during that time. I never saw anything wrong with him. Since this case he has stayed at my place.
Martin Donnellan, a miner, deposed: I have lived in Adelong for about 26 years. I have known the accused for about two years. Accused is a very quiet and respectable man.
Henry Foster deposed: I have lived at Bombowlee Creek for about 17 years. I have known Mann Singh for about two years and a half. He comes to my place regularly, and I have found him a well conducted man. He stays at my house occasionally.
John Maidment, a laborer, of Mingary, said he could give accused a good character from what he knew of him..
Donald McGregor, overseer at Bombowlee station, said accused had stayed at his place. He found him civil and well-behaved.
Accused [Mann Singh], recalled: Fred Korn told the sergeant all the latter said in his evidence about the assault, but such is not true. The sergeant has told the truth, because it would not be in his interest to tell untruths.
John Korn, recalled: I had no conversation with the boy while the Indian was in the kitchen. The Indian did not see me with a whip in my hand. It was when I found accused in the bedroom I said, “What are you doing here?” I did not owe him anything. What accused says in his evidence is totally untrue.
Dr Mason, re-called: Accused would have fair power with his deformed hand, and could take a good grip with it.
Frederick Korn, re-called: Accused’s evidence about the grapes is incorrect. My father did not come to the kitchen when the Indian and I were there.
This closed the case.
Mr Griffin made an able request to the jury on behalf of his client, asking the jurors to free the minds of all prejudice likely to arise against the accused because he was an Indian, as people as a rule had a prejudice against aliens.
The Crown Prosecutor also addressed the jury, ridiculing the notion that a father could concoct a terrible story like this against an Indian and disgrace his own son. It would need some strong impelling motive to make a man swear a false charge of this kind, or form a conspiracy to crush the Indian, so that he could escape payment of a paltry 29/6.
His Honor made an exhaustive and clear summing up, occupying an hour in its delivery. He said a man to concoct a story of the kind alleged by the defence against Korn would be guilty of a worse offence than that upon which Mann Sing [sic] was indicted.
After about half-an-hour’s retirement the jury returned into court with a verdict of guilty, with a recommendation to mercy on account of the previous good character of the prisoner. Mr Budd, JP, the foreman of the jury, thanked his Honor for his courtesy during the long trial, and also expressed gratitude for the kindness of Mr JJ Kelly, District Court Bailiff, to the jurymen during the time they were locked up all the previous night.
His Honor imposed a sentence of three years’ penal servitude upon the prisoner. Owing to the recommendations of the jury he would not impose the full term of five years.
The court was crowded during this long trial. The case caused some interest, and the filthy details caused a shudder in court and in all decent homes. We have not published any evidence hinting at the exact nature of the offence. Many of the prisoner’s fellow-countrymen stood stolidly in the court throughout, watching the proceedings with great concern.
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Mann Singh, Gaol photo sheet 7
Gaol Photo Sheet - Transcribed Details
Date when Portrait was taken: 12-10-1899
Name: Mann Singh
Native place: Beina Purse (India)
Year of birth: 1876
Arrived Ship: not known
Trade or occupation
Education, degree of: R & W
Height: 5' 9¼"
Weight On committal: 137
Colour of hair: Black
Colour of eyes: Brown
(No. of previous Portrait ... )
|Where and When||Offence.||Sentence|
Indecent assault on a male person
3 years P.S.
1 The Gundagai Independent and Pastoral, Agricultural & Mining Advocate, (NSW), Sat 11 Mar 1899, p. 2.
2 The Wagga Wagga Advertiser, Tue 14 Mar 1899, p. 1.
3 The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Tue 14 Mar 1899, p. 2.
4 The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Fri 17 Mar 1899, p. 1. Emphasis added.
5 The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Tue 1 Aug 1899, p. 2. Emphasis added.
6 The Gundagai Times and Tumut, Adelong, and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, Fri 4 Aug 1899, p. 2.
7 SRNSW: NRS2232, [3/5973], Goulburn Gaol photographic description book, 12 Oct 1899- 25 Mar 1902, No. 1333, p. 10, R5120.